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GBI Research’s report, “The Global Carbon Trading Market – Concepts, Regulations and Industry Trends to 2020″ provides an in-depth analysis on the global carbon trading market. The report provides the latest information on the value, volume and price of the emissions traded in primary project-based mechanisms such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and secondary CDM, and allowance markets such as the EU Emission Trading System (ETS), New South Wales Exchange, Chicago Climate Exchange, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and Assigned Amount Units (AAUs). The report provides a scenario-based forecast of the carbon market up to 2020. The report provides an overview on various carbon registries, carbon exchanges and the major companies participating in the carbon trade. The research work provides indispensable assessment of risk and opportunities for the corporate in the carbon constraint environment. Regulatory efforts to mitigate climate change have spawned an emerging carbon market that grew at compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 89% to reach $138.3 billion in 2009. The EU’s initiatives to build a broad, globally linked carbon market, the prospective US Federal cap-and-trade program and the strong emergence of other regional market trading mechanisms will drive the carbon market significantly beyond 2012.
Key market data on the volume and market value of carbon allowances, covering both project-based transactions and allowance-based transactions from 2004–2009.
Analysis on all global carbon market exchanges — the EU Emission Trading System (ETS), New South Wales Exchange, Chicago Climate Exchange, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), Australian Climate Exchange, World Green Exchange etc.
Historic pricing trends for carbon in various exchanges and project-based transactions from 2005–2009.
Forecasts of the global carbon trading market up to 2020 based on likely scenarios that might emerge in the future.
Impact assessment of key carbon regulations and policies and their impact on the growth of global carbon trading market.
Analyzes market-based instruments such as certifications and standards used in carbon trading in 2009.
Overview on investment firms, infrastructure and energy service providers, advisory companies, financial firms, brokerage firms, carbon solution providers and other auditing firms participating in carbon trade.
Key emission trading companies covered include 3 Degrees Incorporated, APX Incorporated, Baker & McKenzie, Blue Source, CantorCO2e, Climate Focus and Credit Suisse
Assessment of risk and opportunities for the corporate in the carbon constraint environment
Reasons to buy
Navigate the carbon emission market landscape through detailed analysis of the current carbon market dynamics and potential changes
Identify the most promising geography to invest in energy efficiency and renewable energy projects, in order to minimize carbon taxes.
Identify the most promising geography to invest in the unconventional and renewable energy sectors to minimize carbon taxes.
Develop custom strategies for different geographies based on the stringency of the carbon policy in the respective geography.
Develop business strategies with the help of specific insights into policy decisions being taken on the carbon credits trade by EU 27, the US, Australia and other developed and emerging countries worldwide.
Identify risks associated with tightening carbon emission cap and transform them into opportunities for future growth.
1 Table of Contents 6
1.1 List of Tables 8
1.2 List of Figures 9
2 Introduction 10
2.1 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Their Impact on Global Carbon Trading Markets 10 2.1.1 Impact of Greenhouse Gases on Ecology 10
2.1.2 Naturally Occurring Carbon Cycle 11
2.1.3 Global Initiatives to Reduce Carbon Footprint 12
3 Origins of Carbon Trading Market and Exchanges 14
3.1 Evolution of Carbon Trading Market 14
3.2 Global and Regional Carbon Exchanges 15
4 Kyoto Protocol, a Precursor of Emissions Trading Systems 17
4.1 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) 19 4.1.1 CDM Project Activity Cycle 20
4.1.2 Joint Implementation (JI) and Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) 20
4.1.3 Emission Trading 28
5 Global Carbon Trading Market: Dynamics and Statistics 29
5.1 Global Carbon Trading Market Overview 29
5.2 Global Allowance Markets 31 5.2.1 The EU Emission Trading Scheme: Still the Most Prominent Carbon Market 32
5.2.2 The US Market 33
5.2.3 The Australian Market 35
5.3 Global Project-based Market 36 5.3.1 Primary Project-based Market 37
5.3.2 Secondary Project-based Market 56
5.4 Post 2012 Market Uncertainty: Scenario Based Forecast to 2020 57 5.4.1 Linear Growth: Moderate Market with Current Programs and Policies 57
5.4.2 Scaling Up: Implementation of US Cap-and-Trade Program and EU Integrated Systems 59
5.4.3 Global Reach: Collaboration of EU, the US and Developing Nations 61
6 Global Carbon Credits Market Policy Framework Facilitating Emissions Trading 63
6.1 Overview of Regulatory Framework for Emission Trading Systems 63 6.1.1 American Clean Energy and Security Act and its Implications 63
6.1.2 European Union’s Climate Change Policy 64
6.1.3 Climate Change Initiatives in Canada and Prospects for Emissions Trading 67
6.1.4 Australia’s Climate Change Initiatives will Aid the Emission Trading Mechanism 67
6.2 Increasing Role of International Emissions Trading and International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) in Boosting the Market 68 6.2.1 Objectives of IETA 68
6.2.2 Programs by IETA 68
6.3 Various Regulatory Frameworks and Regional Initiatives in the US 69 6.3.1 American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 70
6.3.2 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in the US 71
6.3.3 California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 AB 32 73
6.3.4 Western Climate Initiative (WCI) 73
6.3.5 Midwestern Regional GHG Reduction Accord (MGGRA) 74
6.3.6 EPA Climate Leaders 74
6.3.7 Hawaii Global Warming Solutions Act of 2007 74
6.4 European Union Emissions Trading System Promotes Emissions Trading Market 75
6.4.1 EU ETS 75
6.4.2 Revised EU ETS 75
6.5 Japan’s Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan and Other Voluntary Markets 77
6.6 Emission Reduction Schemes of Australia 78 6.6.1 New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme 78
6.6.2 Greenhouse Challenge Plus 78
6.6.3 Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme 78
6.7 Canadian Government’s Measures and Initiatives Drive Carbon Trading 79
6.8 Global Carbon Credits Standards 79 6.8.1 American Carbon Registry Standard 80
6.8.2 The Climate Action Reserve Protocols 81
6.8.3 The CarbonFix Standard 81
6.8.4 Chicago Climate Exchange Offsets Program 81
6.8.5 Climate, Community, and Biodiversity Standards 81
6.8.6 EPA Climate Leaders Offset Guidance 81
6.8.7 Greenhouse Gas Services Standard 81
6.8.8 The Gold Standard 82
6.8.9 Greenhouse Friendly 82
6.8.10 ISO 14064 Standards 82
6.8.11 Plan Vivo 82
6.8.12 Social Carbon Standard 82
6.8.13 TUV NORD Climate Change Standard and VER+ Standard 82
6.8.14 Voluntary Carbon Standard 83
7 Competitive Landscape of Emission Trading Companies 84
7.1 3 Degrees Incorporated 84
7.2 APX Incorporated 84
7.3 Baker & McKenzie 84
7.4 Blue Source 84
7.5 CantorCO2e 84
7.6 Climate Focus 85
7.7 Credit Suisse 85
7.8 EcoSecurities Group 85
7.9 Equator LLC 85
7.10 MGM International 85
7.11 Natsource 85
7.12 RNK Capital LLC 86
7.13 Sterling Planet, Incorporated 86
7.14 Tradition Financial Services/TFS Energy/TFS Green 86
7.15 TUV SUD America 86
8 Corporate Sustainability in a Changing Landscape 87
8.1 Carbon Exposure Risks 87
8.2 Carbon Exposure Opportunities 88
8.3 Carbon Emission Intensity by Sector 88
8.4 Companies are Expanding the Horizons of Sustainability Practices — New Initiatives in Carbon Sustainability 89 8.4.1 Chevron Corporation — Multifaceted Response to Climate Change 89
8.4.2 Walmart Stores, Inc. — Sustainability Mandate throughout the Supply Chain 91
8.4.3 General Electric Co. — Ecomagination Initiative, Revenue Opportunities from Climate Change Solutions 92
9 Appendix 94
9.1 About GBI Research 94
9.2 Abbreviations 94
9.3 Methodology 96 9.3.1 Coverage 97
9.3.2 Secondary Research 97
9.3.3 Primary Research 97
9.3.4 Expert Panel Validation 98
9.4 Contact Us 98
9.5 Disclaimer 98
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